Saturday, March 28, 2020
Post-Colonialism is how a culture changes after ideas are dominated by new beliefs on how ways life should be. Hybridity, when talking about post-colonialism, can be described in two different ways. Hybridity can be viewed as a mixture of groups or cultures in which one then compliments the other so that a new group or culture is formed. Either group or culture will then practice with an understanding from both beliefs. In the other view of hybridity it shows the overall loss of identity, or the process of identifying oneself among a different culture. Each of these definitions of hybridity is expressed through the writings of Amitav GhoshÃ¢â¬â¢s The Glass Palace, Robert J. C. YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s Postcolonialism, and Gandhi. Amitav Ghosh expresses hybridity in The Glass Palace through characters who adapt to the mixture of culture, and to those who experience the loss of their identity because of this mixture. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects of Post-Colonialism and Hybridity in a Culture or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In Robert J. C. YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s Postcolonialism, the example of Algerian rai music is described as a hybrid genre. Hybridity can also be seen through the early writings of Gandhi according to the European education system and how it completely evolved from the previous form of education established in India. Each society is forced into an overlapping culture with their dominating colonial power, changing every aspect of their previously known lifestyle, thus having to adapt to the new style of living. When talking about hybridity in the sense of mixture, The Glass Palace shows hybridity through the change of clothing styles. Saya John is normally dressed in the traditional Ã¢â¬Å"longyiÃ¢â¬ because of his country, but as colonial power itÃ¢â¬â¢s imposed on his lifestyle, he then begins to dress in more traditional European clothing. The transformation to the European style of clothing symbolizes his overall transition into a hybrid culture. In Robert J. C. YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s, Postcolonialism, the example of Algerian rai music is described as a hybrid genre due to the combination of various Spanish, French, and Arabic influences found within the single category of music. He writes, Ã¢â¬Å"rai does not consist of one kind of music that can easily be described in general terms. It has always been mobile and shifting as it changes its functions and locations, its instruments and its audiencesÃ¢â¬ (Young 70). Rai music changed due to the hybrid culture in which it was founded. It became a mix of sounds and phrases from multiple regions, forming an entirely new expression of music. One of the simplest forms of social expression was changed due to the combination of multiple cultures. Both the transformation of clothing styles and development of rai music illustrates the definition of hybridity in the sense of a mixture of two cultures. Views of hybridity can be seen by some aspects of post-colonial like: political structure, economic strategies, and social models of a culture. In GhoshÃ¢â¬â¢s The Glass Palace, Rajkumar, an orphan from Burma, takes on a new economic role due to the combination of his previously known culture with that of the Europeans. Originally, Rajkumar himself served as a source of labor in the teak lumber yards, yet as he gains knowledge with age, he acquires a teak yard of his own using procedures similar to those of the Europeans. He uses the British tactic of maintaining slave labor for economic advancement. The lifestyle that Rajkumar attains is a direct result of colonial rule and power. The British colonizers were able to change the entire economic system of the teak yards, and once Rajkumar was exposed to this, his original ideas about labor were transformed as well. During his confrontation with Uma, Uma states, Ã¢â¬Å"What you and your kind have done is far worse than the worst deeds of the EuropeansÃ¢â¬ (Ghosh 214). UmaÃ¢â¬â¢s reference to the slave labor, Rajkumar, has been enforcing in his camps displaying the fact that he has not only blended with the culture of the British, but he has surpassed their traditional actions. This reinstates the other idea of hybridity causing the loss of oneself. Rajkumar is no longer able to identify with his previous Burmese culture, but rather he has transitioned into a European mindset. A similar instance pertaining to the overall loss of oneself can also be seen through DollyÃ¢â¬â¢s character in The Glass Palace. She is originally from Burma, but she spends the majority of her time in India with the Royal family. Due to her location, she encounters a first-hand experience of a lifestyle under colonial domination. She experiences an overall loss of identity with her previously known territory and culture. During her conversation with Uma, she is asked whether she would ever want to return to Burma. She responds by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"NeverÃ¢â¬ ¦if I were to return to Burma now, I would be a foreigner-they would call me a kalaa like they do Indiansa trespasser, an outsider from across the seaÃ¢â¬ (Ghosh 96). Dolly refers to herself as a foreigner when referring to her homeland. By going through a lifestyle under British rule in another country, she has completely lost a sense of who she once was, and is unable to identify with her previously known culture. The idea of Dolly referring to herself as a Ã¢â¬Å"foreignerÃ¢â¬ within her own homeland displays the loss of herself and her identity which represents the meaning of hybridity. DollyÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions towards herself and her homeland are compared throughout the writings of Gandhi. The elements of hybridity are interpreted through the exploration of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s imperial rule over India. The education system in India had completely evolved in its transition to a post-colonial territory. The traditional form of education in India was transformed into that of the traditional European education, causing both social and political elements of hybridity to form throughout the territory. Gandhi speaks against this transition, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"[they] should have today a free IndiaÃ¢â¬ ¦not as if they were foreigners in their own landÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Gandhi 127). Similar to Dolly, many Indians had begun to lose their identity, and felt as though they were foreigners in their own land. There was not a single sense of their previous culture that remained within themselves, or their daily routines. The Glass Palace portrays various pieces of hybridity through each of the characters and their positions in their society and culture. Rajkumar is able to learn positive economic benefits from the combination of British tactics and traditional Burmese standards. However, UmaÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective embodies the second definition of hybridity. She believes that Rajkumar has fully transitioned into the European culture, leaving no trace of his previous Burmese identity to be found. And Dolly takes on this perspective for herself, completely losing her previous identity and culture due to the colonial-dominated area she grew up in. Between clothing styles, genres of music, political structures, economic developments, and social models of a culture, hybridity has emerged throughout post-colonial areas, and is still affected the daily lives of the people in societies and cultures today.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Status Symbols in Roman era essays Costume in the Roman era is marked by similarity to the Greeks and Etruscans. However, a distinct garment of the Romans is the tunic. The tunic was sometimes worn alone or worn under the distinctive toga. If the tunic was worn alone, a belt was used around the waist. The toga is the other fundamental garment of the romans. in early roman era, the toga was worn by both men and women. The toga was an expensive piece of heavy whit wool. It was roughly semicircular, approximately 18 feet wide and 7 feet deep, and draped in a complicated matter over the body. The toga was worn mainly by men and only on special occasion in many cases. Therefore, it created a status symbol in itself. However, there were several different types of togas that men would wear for different occasions. The Toga Praetexta was characterized by a stripe of colorrepresenting a profession or class. Blue stripes represented philosophers; black stripes were for theologians; green was for doctors; magistrates or public officials wore purple stripes. The next type of toga was the Toga Virilis. This toga was a plain toga worn by a typical citizen on a special occasion. The third type of toga is the Toga Picta adorned by emporers. It was a crimson toga embroidered with gold. A Toga Candida was given a glossy look by rubbing it with chalk, and worn by those running for osffice. The last type of symbolic toga for men was called the Toga Pulla. This toga was made of natural black wool and worn in funerals. As you see, men's clothing showed status because of th e color that it was made of. Women in Roman society were classified by clothing, but not just the color of the material. In later Roman era, only prostitutes or women of ill repute wore togas, while decent women wore tunics. Married women were identified by the article of clothing called a stola. A stola is shaped much like a modern day dress with thin strips of cloth at the shoulder. A...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Walt Disney and Organizational Value - Essay Example The study also talks about how the value of organization is enhanced by close collaboration and communication between different organizations. If two organizations willingly share information with each other it would become increasingly important for the success of the organization because the organization is exposed to more learning opportunities in this case. Hence, an organizational value is not only created by its resources, but also by new knowledge and information that it can learn over time. This will also lead to organizational development. (Winklen) Another important aspect of organizational value creation is the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness and ability to meet the needs of its stakeholders and customers. No business can thrive without having satisfied customers because they bring money to the organization. No organization would be able to operate efficiently if its customers are unhappy or does not transact with the company. Many customers often ask for too many things . Businesses, as a result, are forced to do conjoin analysis in order to decide trade-offs. They would be willing to sacrifice certain less important features of a product or service and replace them with important elements to create value for their stakeholders and customers. Many companies which fail to develop customer-driven approaches fail in their ability to satisfy and retain their customers over long run. They are forced out of the business by their competitors who focus on constantly creating and disseminating value for their customers. In the recent fast and competitive environment, there is no luxury for any business to become complacent, because if a laid-back strategy is chosen, the cut-throat competition in the industry will force the company out of the business. (Toomb and Bailey) A study done by Krista Jaakson highlights the organizational value dimensions as showed in the Figure 1 below. The model highlights three dimensional levels. The first level is about surviva l values, the second level is about ethical value dimension and the third stage is about well-being dimension. Any organization starts from the survival value in order to succeed in the first changing business environment. In the first stage, organization has to set its system rights. They need to develop proper financial report systems, set conservatives values, and control volatility in the economic environment. After all of this is achieved, the organization moves to the second level of value dimension. Here the organization is concerned about ethical values. In this level, there is greater advocacy for creating interpersonal value, ethical values and general humane behavior. The third level of value is achieved through developing proper vision values, emotional values and self actualization values. Achievement of this results in proper value creation for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders. The sum of all these value dimensions is greater than the amount of input used in valu e creation. It is where the synergy is created and the value created by the organization is greater than its costs and efforts involved in creating the value. (Jaakson) Figure 1: Organizational Value Dimensions Source: (Jaakson) Walt Disney is a large company. The majority shareholder of the company at one time was Steve Jobs with over 10% equity investment in the company. It is AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s large media conglomerate. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements are decorated with amazing financial figures. In 2011 alone, the company earned
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Matthew Broadrick - Essay Example His father provided him with a stage at the age of seventeen in a workshop construction. His occupation grew majorly in two Neil Simon schemes that include the play, Brighton Beach Memoirs (1982 and 1983), and the famous film Max Dugan Returns, launched in the year 1983. He reprised the position of Eugene in the Biloxi Blues in the year 1988; he also participated in the second installment of the Simon trilogy, for both Broadway production and in the film adaption. In the third and the final installation of the trilogy, Jonathan Silverman replaced Matthew. He had his first big-screen success in the light comedy War Games in the year 1983 (Mecchi 1). He produced some of the best films that happened to be among the great hits in the film industry that include Project X (1987), which starred Helen Hunt whom he dated, Inspector Gadget in the year 1999, addicted to love in the year 1997. He has also appeared in other films that include Out on a Limb in the year 1992, the Night We Never Met in the year 1993, The Road to Wellsville in the year 1994, and The Cable Guy in the year 1996, which he produced with Jim Carrey that gave him The Best Fight award nomination. He had a car crash in year 1985, as he drove in Ireland with his beloved fiancÃ ©e Jennifer Grey. In that accident, a woman and her daughter were killed. In that case, he was free but he paid a fine to the relatives of the victims. In the car accident, he broke his leg. He returned to the New York stage in the revivals of old show plays such as Ã¢â¬Ëshow the public how to succeed in business without much trying (Mecchi 2). In the year 1996, Broadrick co-produced the Infinity. He worked with his mother, and she wrote the screenplay. He did not manage to succeed as a director. He married Sarah Jessica Parker, who is also an actress. In his life, he dated Lili Taylor and was engaged to Helen Hunt. Broadrick came back to Broadway in musical
Monday, January 27, 2020
The Causes Of Urban Pollution Environmental Sciences Essay Human activity is one of the main causes of environmental issues today. The two main causes of pollutants in urban areas are transportation technologies such as the automobiles and power production technologies such as industrial heating and cooling and coal-burning power plants. Automobiles produce a large amount of carbon monoxides to the air we breathe in. There are also more problems such as waste these problems can be fixed through a social aspect, where rules and regulations are changed to decrease environmental problems, and also by societys lifestyle, examples of lifesyle changes could be when individuals recycle; this preserves energy and decreases production, by which causes pollution. Also to drive hybrid cars which are lower in emission and are environment friendly instead of the gasoline-using counterpart. On the other hand, these problems can also be fixed through a technological aspect, where companies like coal companies use strategies to control air pollution by redu cing emission through burning cleaner fuel such as natural gas instead of coal. To socially fix the environment, society will have to change their individual lifestyles, as well as rules and regulations being changed. After more than a century of heavy industrialization and consumption, people of earth are now feeling the effects of over-crowded garbage dumps, contaminated sites, acid rain and polluted air and water. But commerce cannot only be blamed; it is also each individual lifestyle that can be blamed, such as driving cars that rely mainly on gasoline. Each year in the united states, three-hundred tons of carbon is released into the air, by which causes smog and damage to the ecosystem and is one of the countless causes of global warming today. This problem can be decreased if more individuals invest in hybrid cars, which are powered by a combination of the traditional gasoline power and the addition of some other power source such as an electric motor or hydrogen fuel cell. Another lifestyle change each individual should consider is buying compact fluores cent light bulbs instead of incandescent ones. advances in technology have directed us to a light bulb thats designed to last up to 15 times the life of a standard bulb. They are expensive, but they last much longer, which makes them cheaper in the long run. Also, these bulbs will use less than a third of the power of incandescent, which will reduce electricity costs. They also generate less heat, so less air-conditioning is needed in the summer. Another simple lifestyle change individuals should take into consideration is to reuse shopping bags; this means one less bag to be manufactured and less pollution. A smart technique that most grocery stores use is to charge a small credit on plastic bags, which forces people to reuse bags. Turning off the air-conditioning and/or heat when leaving the house. A great deal of electricity is wasted cooling or heating an empty home, which leads to bigger bills. Even setting the temperature one or two degrees different, keeping the system from a ctivating as often, can save significant amounts of money each year. In the United States, the government continuously uses federal regulatory powers to control greenhouse gas emmissions, and focuses more on power plants and oil refineries. These two industries produce approximatly fourty percent of emmissions in the united states. To solve this issue, the unitedstatesenvironmental protection act (EPA) is considering using different tools under the federal clean air act to reduce emmissions from factories. This includes new permit requirements for all heavily polluting industry, followed by specific greenhouse gas standards for power plants and oil refineries. This may cause problems for the companies and may cause job loss by which some members of congress are challenging. In December 23rd 2010, the environmental protection act (EPA) , announced it will propose greenhouse gas pollution limits for power plants in July 2011 and for oil refineries in December 2011. Ultimate rules will be questioned the following year. The principles will set levels of p ollutant that these companies may produce under the clean air act, which is the federal law that grants the EPA the authority to shield U.S air quality. China owns cities that have the highest concentrations of air pollution in the world. This is because they have a high increase of industrial development, which leads to a rapid use of natural recourses, as well as high amounts of pollution. The main issue chinas government is dealing with is air pollution and water pollution. Air pollution in china is responsible for 750,000 deaths. To solve this issue, china upgraded their state environmental protection administration to a higher level, which shows concern for fixing the pollution problem, which focuses more on air pollution. The Chinese government is extremely concerned with reducing the pollution throughout China, and has been since the beginning of the 21st Century. Air pollution in china are one of the causes of respiratory disease and even heart disease. Due to the high numbers of affected persons, china has strict environmental laws, by which they find difficult to enforce them. When the government announces a no automobile d ay on main roads, the declaration is ignored by most people. Up to today, china is still trying to help prevent and reduce air pollution throughout the country. India is one of the most polluted countries in South East Asia. There are severe problems with both indoor and outdoor air pollution in India. The indoor air pollution is caused by many factors, but mostly the burning of toxic fuels to prepare meals. Indian people, burn coal, wood, and even animal dung to cook their meals, which releases toxins into the air they breathe. Breathing in this terrible quality air is responsible for nearly 500,000 deaths there each year. This high number is mostly women and children and it is a serious problem. This number, according to the World Health Organization, is 80% of the nearly 600,000 deaths related to indoor air pollution in all of SE Asia. A shocking 70 percent of rural households in India do not have any ventilation at all. Air pollution in India caused by these problems could be cut in half by taking a few measures. These measures include promoting smokeless cooking methods, and the use of proper ventilation. If these methods of helping wer e put into action then the deaths caused by indoor air pollution in India could be reduced by half. Although the methods for helping with air pollution in India sound great it will be a long and hard road to success. These methods for cooking have been in place for so many years people do not want to change. It is mostly women who are mainly exposed to the highest concentration while cooking meals, by which result to death. Unfortunately, it may take time and convincing, but the Indian government is committed to making changes by 2015. According to Peter Tans, a physicist with national oceanic atmosphere administrations, (NOAA), he claims that naturally, if there are more greenhouse gases, this greenhouse affect will be more significant and raise the temperature of earth more than if humans didnt emit as much greenhouse gases. The technological fix to environmental problems, will consist on improving ways in decreasing pollution. For example, In research conducted at the University of Calgary, climate change scientist David Keith and a team of researchers showed it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide , which is the main greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming using a relatively simple machine that can capture the trace of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere at any place on the planet.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Serves Us RightÃ¢â¬ by Phoebe Damrosch describes the occupation of waiting as overlooked, treated badly, and in need of some change. We pay attention to and adore the rock star chefs, yet we often ignore those who deal with our food most, our waiters. Waiters in America are undertrained and treated poorly. Waiters work unpredictable schedules for unpredictable pay which depends heavily on tipping. They often do not receive work benefits such as health care and paid sick leave(1). As a result the quality of waiting is not great, because it is not a good job to hold, and there is a large turnover of new employees(2). Restaurants can improve the quality of waiting in America if they were to provide training and benefits(2). Damrosch suggests that removing tipping in exchange for a service charge paid by the employers would result in better service. Damrosch states that Ã¢â¬Å"The service charge shifts the focus from the money to the experienceÃ¢â¬ (1). The occupation of waiting in its current state is sub par because the working conditions are sub par; waiter working conditions must be improved before work quality can too. Phoebe Damrosch makes many great points and is correct in her statements about the occupation of waiting and the occupation of waiting needs some changes for the better. Waiters and waitresses have some of the most unpredictable hours and schedules, making it difficult to schedule and lead their lives outside of their occupation. On top of that, they are underpaid; most waiters only make minimum wage and their salary is determined by how much they receive through tipping. Waiting is not a simple occupation either, it takes a lot of work and effort especially when it is busy to try and attend to all their customers. Taking orders, refilling drinks, making sure everything is OK, as well as delivering food from the kitchen requires a lot of multitasking skills and focus. I agree with Damrosch that tipping is instrumental in the failure of good service. With their already low wages, waiters and waitresses rely heavily on tipping, that means getting the customers in and out as fast as possible. This attitude towards working neglects the overall experience of each customer. Damrosch questions whether tipping should be held in practice anymore, and I completely agree. Removing tipping and boosting the base salary of waiters and waitresses would allow them to focus more on doing a good job instead of scrambling around trying to work as fast they can to receive more money from tipping each night. Most waiters and waitresses do not receive health care or other benefits either further adding to the list of negatives. All in all, Damrosch is correct, the occupation of waiting is one that is a lot of work, and hardly worth it. Too many negatives exist to keep people interested in waiting. For those that do practice waiting as their occupation, there is little motivation to do their job well. This job sees a lot of overturn as a result, so training becomes impractical and good service is becoming rare. The existence of tipping shifts the focus from providing quality service to trying to make as much money as possible. Waiting is hard work and improving the conditions of waiting is necessary before any improvement in the quality of work can be expected to be seen. Works Cited Damrosch, Pheobe. Ã¢â¬Å"Serves Us RightÃ¢â¬ . New York TimesÃ September, 19, 2009: 1-2.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Is the student| |Constructivist |and cultural belief can influence the |along with the teacher a book. |responding or actively participating in class | | |learning along with interactions of other |Teacher will give the student a project on a topic|discussions | | |students in the classroom. and then will present it in front of the class |Mind mapping will have the students list and | | |In a classroom that utilizes the theory of |Have the students watch a clip or a movie and then|categorize new concepts | | |constructivism, there would be: |the teacher will conduct a discussion afterwards |Pre-assessments allows the teacher to know what | | |Vigorous participation |Teacher can take the students on a field trip to |the students know and what topics they will need | | | Small group interactions |relate real world experiences to the concepts |to be taught | | |New concepts shown within context |learned in class |Hands on activities assess how the students can | | |Previous knowledge used to create new | |utilize a particular learning tool | | |knowledge | | | |Questions or activities to lead to new | | | | |concepts | | | | |This theory is based on the teacher defines |Teacher can have the students underline a portion |Assessments though individual work. Is the | |Explicit or Direct |and model the concept, guides the students |of the text on an overhead or on the board to |student completing and doing individual | |Instruction |through application, and creates guided |depict whatever topic is being discussed, like |assignments? | | |practice until there is mastery of the |naming the nouns, proper nouns, prepositions, etc. |Assessment through a test or quiz with an essay | | |concept. Ask the students to check the text on the overhead|writing or proje ct report | | |In this model, the classroom will consists |because you need to prove whatever topic is being |An informal assessment through having the | | |of: |discussed |children do Ã¢â¬Å"thumbs up or thumbs downÃ¢â¬ | | |Direct instruction of phonemic awareness |Ask the students to read a passage to see if it | | | |Decoding skills |sounds right and makes sense, then ask if there | | | |Rules of language |should be any revisions | | | | |Skill based worksheets, flash cards, or game | | | | |relating to the new concept | | Reading Philosophies It is important to know what type of effective teaching strategies you want to have when you step inside the classroom doors. Although there are many different teaching styles, the two most common philosophies are direct/explicit instruction and constructivist. Choosing either method is a matter of preference and what will work best for the teacher and the students. No matter what, the information that is given to the students must be informative and related to their needs as well as their particular grade level. This essay will discuss both approaches and what method I would like to utilize when I become a teacher. Ã¢â¬Å"Teachers can give students ladders that lead to higher understanding, yet the students themselves must climb these laddersÃ¢â¬ (Slavin, 2009, p. 231) emphasizes the view of a constructivist in which the students are vital roles in their own learning and development. A traditional idea about teaching is comparable to the constructivist method of teaching. This method commonly has the teacher identifying learning objectives, planning learning activities, and creating assessments. However this theory relies on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and more hands on activities. The teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to facilitate personal learning by establishing a community of learners, and by making it clear to the student that he or she is part of the community (Baines & Stanley, 2000). Jean Piaget is well known for generally attributing to the formalization of constructivism. Piaget felt that accommodation and assimilation will help students construct new knowledge from their past experiences. When students assimilate, they will digest their new experience into a pre-existing context without altering the new context. It is also important to know that constructivism is not a specific pedagogy. In short, this theory describes how learning happens, despite of whether students are using their past experiences to comprehend the lesson. In a constructivist classroom, there would be (1) vigorous participation (2) small group discussions (3) concepts introduced within context, and (4) authentic literature, (GCU, 2013). Truthfully, many aspects of constructivism are commendable (Baines & Stanley, 2000). One component of this theory is small group discussions. The next theory is direct or explicit instruction. This model (1) sets the stage for learning (2) teacher provides clear explanation of what to do (3) modeling the process (4) guided practice, and (4) independent practice. Throughout explicit instruction, teachers are responsible for monitoring the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and providing them a kind of scaffolding that is appropriate throughout their learning process. Modeling is a key component of scaffolded instruction (Truscott & Truscott, 2004). When this strategy is used there will be gradual withdrawal of supportive learning structures to eventually become the sole responsibility of the student (Truscott & Truscott, 2004). This concept has been known to improve learning however it may take a long time for the student to master. However once it is mastered, the student feels a sense of accomplishment and self-sufficient. Explicit instructions make the student responsible as well in a different way that constructivism is administered. Students will know and understand what they are expected to perform by themselves and what goals that they will work towards. In the content of reading, studies have shown that direct teaching of word meanings in a reading passage is more effective than an uninstructed vocabulary learning approach (Sanbul & Schmitt (2010). There is an allowance for student engagement as well. Learning is an active process. Teachers of this model will maintain the classroom with proper behavior; however students should stay actively involved in the lesson in order to have the greatest impact on their learning. While they are being taught, students will be focused on the lesson as well as try to make sense of the new material. I feel that either theory is the not better than the other. I feel that both theories can work together in a classroom if they are balanced out. A study was conducted at the University of Kansas of 83 students who were targeted in the winter of kindergarten as being high risk for reading failure. Interventions were conducted in small groups of one to six students for thirty minute sessions, three times per week, for a two year period (Kamps, Abbot, Greenwood, Wills, Verrkamp, Kaufman, 2008). Reading comprehension is a very complex skill to teach. In this study, the students worked on comprehension strategies including decoding words, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge and rapid letter naming. As a result, the findings from this study proved that small group instruction improved in critical early literacy skills. Some students even advanced to grade level performance (Kamps, Abbot, Greenwood, Wills, Verrkamp, Kaufman, 2008). I feel this is a great example of both theories placed into one. The teacher was incorporated by working directly with the students; however the students were placed in smaller groups like in the constructivism theory. In my classroom, I would use constructivism to create a print-rich environment with studentÃ¢â¬â¢s work posted and a time that students are free and able to discuss classroom topics. I would also relate the content that is being taught to a life experience so the students can understand that specific content area. I would also create high levels of interaction with lots of group work. However there will be a time for explicit instruction. I will monitor the students for understanding to make sure that they are deriving meaning from the instruction. I also think it is important that I model the assignment before I give it, especially for kindergarten because their understanding for directions is still very new. All teaching strategies or theories require some form of assessment to make sure the student understands the given concept. Although both theories are quite different, the assessments are the same. The assessments are either formative or summative. Teachers will use formative assessments through class observations of participation, questioning strategies, and peer or self assessment. Through summative strategies, it is usually benchmark exams or state mandated standardized testing. In conclusion, both theories have been proven to be very successful. Researchers agree that teachers need to be adaptive to meet studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ diverse and individual needs (Parsons, Davis, Scales, Williams, Kear, 2010). No one can clearly state which theory works better. I have observed both theories inside classrooms of today and the students were successful in their learning. I feel that whatever works best for you and your students, then just go for it. Bottom line, we need the students to become successful and proper citizens once they graduate so I hope to do my best when I am teaching and use both theories to make it happen. References Baines, L. A. , & Stanley, G. (2000). Ã¢â¬ËWe Want to See the Teacher. Ã¢â¬Ë. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(4), 327. Kamps, D. , Abbott, M. , Greenwood, C. , Wills, H. , Veerkamp, M. , & Kaufman, J. (2008). Effects of Small-Group Reading Instruction and Curriculum Differences for Students Most at Risk in Kindergarten. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 41(2), 101-114. Parsons, S. A. , Davis, S. G. , Scales, R. Q. Williams, B. , & Kear, K. A. (2010). How AND WHY TEACHERS ADAPT THEIR LITERACY INSTRUCTION. College Reading Association Yearbook, (31), 221-236. Slavin, R. E. (2009). Educational Psychology. In R. E. Slavin, Educational Psychology (pp. 30-44). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc. Sonbul, S. , & Schmitt, N. (20 10). Direct teaching of vocabulary after reading: is it worth the effort?. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 64(3), 253-260. doi:10. 1093/elt/ccp059 Truscott, D. M. , & Truscott, S. D. (2004). A professional development model for the positive practice of school-based reading consultation. Psychology In The Schools, 41(1), 51-65.